Development of computationally efficient strategies for the detailed soot modeling in turbulent combustion

Within the ESTiMatE project, researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUDa), Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) and Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV) are collaborating towards the development of computationally efficient strategies for the integration of detailed soot models with turbulent combustion models in the context of the LES framework.

These modeling strategies mainly concern the integration of Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) with the split-based Extended Quadrature based Method of Moments (S-EQMOM) soot model [1], coupling of Discrete Sectional Method-based (DSM) soot model [2] with the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) tabulated chemistry [3], and Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) [4] based combustion models.

At TU/e, in collaboration with UPV, the FGM-DSM [5] strategy has been applied to confined pressurized non-premixed turbulent ethylene-air flames, experimentally studied at the Institute of Structures and Design at University of Stuttgart (DLR-USTUTT) [6], to investigate the soot formation characteristics. Furthermore, in collaboration with BSC, the application of the FGM-DSM has been also extended to the Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) burner [7]. The RQL configuration is particularly attractive to aero-engine applications.

Fields of mean temperature (left) and PAH (right) for the DLR burner. (Courtsey:UPV)
Fields of mean temperature (left) and PAH (right) for the DLR burner. (Courtsey:UPV)


At TUDa, a detailed soot model S-EQMOM has been developed, implemented, and validated in the ITD CFD code PRECISE-UNS. The S-EQMOM method provides not only the integral soot quantities as soot volume fraction and number density but also the local particle size distribution at low computational costs.  The validation of the S-QMOM implementation in PRECISE-UNS has been completed on two different configurations of aero-engine combustors using both RANS and LES for different operating conditions.

In the next stage, the ESF-EQMOM, FGM-DSM, CMC-DSM strategies will be applied together with the newly developed kinetic mechanism of DLR-USTUTT [8] in the numerical simulations of the test rigs experimentally investigated by the researchers at the Technische Universität Berlin. The aforementioned simulation activities will benefit from the High-Performance Computing (HPC) resources under the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) programme which was recently awarded to the ESTiMatE project.



[1] S. Salenbauch, C. Hasse, M. Vanni, D. L. Marchisio,  J. Aerosol Sci., 128 (2019) 34–49.

[2] C. A. Hoerlle, and F. M. Pereira, Combust. Flame, 203:407-423 (2019).

[3] J. van Oijen, and L. P. H. de Goey., Combust. Sci. Tech. 161, (2000) 113–137.

[4] E.J. Pérez-Sánchez, D. Mira, O. Lehmkuhl, G. Houzeaux, 10th ECM (2021).

[5] A. Kalbhor, and J. van Oijen, Combust. Flame, 229 (2021) 111381.

[6] P. Geigle, R. Hadef, R., W. Meier, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 136(2) (2014).

[7] I. El Helou, A.W. Skiba, E. Mastorakos, Flow, Turb. and Combust. 106(4), (2021):1019-41.

[8] A.Y. Ramirez-Hernandez, T. Kathrotia, T. Methling, M. Braun-Unkhoff, U. Riedel, Gas Turb. Power GTP-21-1384.